The Legacy Of Socrates Essays In Moral Philosophy

The Legacy Of Socrates Essays In Moral Philosophy-84
Believing and Knowing For Plato, there is a distinction between believing and knowing.Since there are objective truths to be known, we may believe X, but belief alone does not guarantee we are correct.

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The person driven most by his or her appetitive side is a producer, while the auxiliary is the spirited person, and the guardian is most rational.

The producers are the laborers, carpenters, artists, and farmers of society; the auxiliaries are the soldiers, warriors, and police; and the guardians are the leaders, rulers, or philosopher-kings.

4.2 Knowledge and Reality Plato believed that there are truths to be discovered; that knowledge is possible.

Moreover, he held that truth is not, as the Sophists thought, relative.

This arrangement lends itself to an aristocracy, a society ruled by a privileged class, rather than a democracy.

This privilege is, however, practically speaking a burden.Unaided by the senses, reason will come to contemplate the Forms.4.3 Allegory of the Cave Plato’s Allegory of the Cave explains, among other things, how we come to the proper use of our reason to know the Forms.Moreover, Plato holds that our souls learned about the Forms before we were born, so we already know them—we have innate knowledge that needs to be elicited through the Socratic method.Plato’s Rationalism Following Parmenides, Plato privileges rationalism over empiricism, or reason over the senses, as the way we know.Consequently, they are more real than their particulars.Because the Forms make particulars possible, they explain what is—we can understand what is by understanding the Forms.Unlike the senses, which can only tell us about this or that sensation, reason can think both about particulars and general concepts.Since the Forms are the most general things there are, the only way we can consider them is by way of our rationality.There are three necessary and sufficient conditions, according to Plato, for one to have knowledge: (1) the proposition must be believed; (2) the proposition must be true; and (3) the proposition must be supported by good reasons, which is to say, you must be justified in believing it.Thus, for Plato, knowledge is justified, true belief.


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