These findings inform clinical practice, public health, public education, and public policy.This review of academic and educational outcomes of ADHD is organized around 5 questions: (1) What are the academic and educational characteristics of children with ADHD?
(2) Are academic and educational problems transient or persistent?
(3) What are the academic characteristics of children with symptoms of ADHD but without formal diagnoses?
Studies from the 1980s and 1990s often used different inclusion and exclusion criteria than were used in more recent studies.
Some studies carefully differentiate between children with what we now label as ADHD-Combined subtype (ADHD-C) and attention deficit disorder or ADHD-predominantly Inattentive subtype (ADHD-I).
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor grades, poor reading and math standardized test scores, and increased grade retention.
Research Paper On Adhd Writing The Introduction Of An Essay
ADHD is also associated with increased use of school-based services, increased rates of detention and expulsion, and ultimately with relatively low rates of high school graduation and postsecondary education.The contributions of these co-occurring problems to the functional outcomes of ADHD have not been well established.Therefore, in this review, we will consider the academic and educational outcomes of ADHD without subdividing the population on the basis of coexisting neurobehavioral problems in affected children.We used the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) as the conceptual framework for describing the functional problems associated with ADHD.The World Health Organization developed the ICF to provide a systematic and comprehensive framework and common language for describing and assessing functional implications of health conditions, regardless of the specific disease or disorder.However, a large survey of elementary school students found children with ADHD-I were more likely to be rated as below average or failing in school compared with the children with ADHD-C and ADHD–predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtype.A subset of children with ADHD-I are described as having a sluggish cognitive tempo, leading to the assumption that there is a higher prevalence of learning disorders in the ADHD-I than the ADHD-C populations.Future research must use conceptually based outcome measures in prospective, longitudinal, and community-based studies to determine which pharmacologic, behavioral, and educational interventions can improve academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD.Problems in school are a key feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), often bringing the child with ADHD to clinical attention.It is important to establish the nature, severity, and persistence of these school difficulties in children with ADHD.It is also critical to learn how various treatments affect academic and educational outcomes.