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A total of 43 articles from three online databases (CINAHL, Medline, and Pubmed) comprised the final sample of articles included in the review.
An additional 16 published papers were identified that used single-item self-report questions to measure research utilization.
Several problems with these research utilization measures were identified: lack of construct clarity of research utilization, lack of use of research utilization theories, lack of use of measurement theory, and finally, lack of standard psychometric assessment.
Clinical and health services research produces vast amounts of new research every year.
Despite increased access by healthcare providers and decision-makers to this knowledge, uptake into practice is slow [1, 2] and has resulted in a 'research-practice gap.'Recognition of, and a desire to narrow, the research-practice gap, has led to the accumulation of a considerable body of knowledge on research utilization and related terms, such as knowledge translation, knowledge utilization, innovation adoption, innovation diffusion, and research implementation.
Dunn specifically urged that greater emphasis be placed on step four (reliability and validity).
A decade later, Rich  provided a comprehensive overview of issues influencing knowledge utilization across many disciplines.Test-retest reliability was reported in 3 studies with Pearson's r coefficients 0.80.No validity information was reported for 12 of the 60 measures.The review was limited to self-report research utilization measures used in professions allied to medicine and to the specific data on validity that was extracted.That is, only data that was (by the original authors) explicitly interpreted as validity in the study reports was extracted as 'supporting validity evidence'.Weiss  also argued for specific foci (i.e., focus on specific studies, people, issues, or organizations) when measuring knowledge utilization.Shortly thereafter, Dunn , proposed a linear four-step process for measuring knowledge utilization: conceptualization (what is knowledge utilization and how it is defined and classified); methods (given a particular conceptualization, what methods are available to observe knowledge use); measures (what scales are available to measure knowledge use); and reliability and validity.The remaining 48 measures were classified into a three-level validity hierarchy according to the number of validity sources reported in 50% or more of the studies using the measure.Level one measures (n = 6) reported evidence from any three (out of four possible) Standards validity sources (which, in the case of single item measures, was all applicable validity sources).We located three theoretical papers explicitly addressing the measurement of knowledge utilization (of which research utilization is a component) [9–11], and one integrative review that examined the psychometric properties of self-report research utilization measures used in professions allied to medicine .Within each of these papers, a need for conceptual clarity and pluralism in measurement was stressed.