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This study characterizes bond formation between pulp fibers leading to insight that could be potentially used to optimize the papermaking process, while reducing energy and wood consumption.Paper is a composite material that has been used for a long time.
A dilute suspension of fibers in water is prepared and evenly distributed on a fine mesh.
The water is removed through the mesh and the remaining fiber mat is pressed and dried.
This creates contact due to plastic, viscoelastic, and elastic deformation of the fiber surfaces.
The degree of molecular contact between the fiber surfaces initially depends on the surface roughness - smooth surfaces permit a high degree of contact.
Interdiffusion refers to the migration of these molecules, usually polymers, from one fiber into the other.
Interdiffusion is believed to be a key mechanism of fiber-fiber bonding.For a given sheet, one of these two is the factor limiting the material strength, as described by the Page equation, e.g.by densification of the paper, the bond strength is improved via the specific bond strength, i.e. In this study, we only use specific bond strength given in bond energy per unit area.Currently, the majority of industrial pulp fibers are manufactured from wood.The process of papermaking has remained basically intact since its beginning.This result is counter-intuitive; however, for soft surfaces this is not uncommon.The formation of the gel layer enables mutual migration of cellulosic polymers into the opposing surface.It improves the bond strength by increasing the available contact area for the inter-molecular bonding forces. have adapted Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) microscopy to study the degree of bonding between cellulosic fiber-fiber surfaces, which they attributed to interdiffusion of the surface molecules.Theoretically, the degree of interdiffusion is limited only by the polymer chain length, which is high for cellulosic fibers.The process of papermaking requires substantial amounts of energy and wood consumption, which contributes to larger environmental costs.In order to optimize the production of papermaking to suit its many applications in material science and engineering, a quantitative understanding of bonding forces between the individual pulp fibers is of importance.