Next, students could be asked to sound like a scientist, historian, or mathematician.
In analyzing how professionals speak, students should be led to recognize that such speech involves longer, more complex sentences and uses higher-level vocabulary than is common in everyday speech.
Students will learn more English when engaged in the action of talking with other students than through typical teacher-directed activities designed solely to deliver content. Language structure, by contrast, refers to the words themselves and how they are strung together into phrases and sentences.
Participation in oral activities has a dual purpose: it develops conceptual understanding and increases language use. Language functions exist in both oral and written communication.
In this chapter, we sort through the research to investigate language functions and structures; highlight what it means for students to use productive accountable talk and "sound like a book"—that is, to express their reasoning using academic language; and show how function, structure, and discourse fit into a framework that will help teachers identify the content-area academic language needed to explicitly teach their students.
Essays On Language Function And Language Type
Language can best be understood as action, rather than form or function alone (Walqui, 2012); students learn to do things with language when they participate in meaningful activities that engage and challenge them.
When we ask students to use the language of science, history, or math, we're asking them to "sound like a book." Students may initially need to have their learning scaffolded.
Teachers can first ask students to verbalize something as if they were their parents or as if they were the principal.
Subject: Social Studies Content Objective: To understand the period of the 1920s and the women's rights movement Language Objective: To learn contractions in order to make comparisons Because students will be comparing what women could and couldn't do—and what they did and didn't do—in the 1920s, they will need the language function of comparing. The language objective is to learn contractions in order to make comparisons.
Conversational language differs from academic language. Conversational language is the informal, chatty way of talking that students use with family and friends, whereas academic language is language used at school and characterized by longer, more complex sentences that contain vocabulary less frequently heard than the vocabulary in everyday spoken English.