Essay About Urbanization

Due to social and economic pressures, people from backward villages started to move towards urbanised centres in search of job, where newly established industries and ancillary activities continuously offer job opportunities to those people migrating to cities. With the gradual growth of the economy, the process of urbanisation depends on the shift of surplus population from rural to urban areas along-with the growth of some industrialised urban centres.

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But during the next three decades (1951-81), the absolute increase was to the extent of 94 million and this shows that the population absorption capacity in urban areas has increased substantially due to industrialisation in the country.

The census data shows that the annual growth rate of urban population which was 3.26 per cent during 1961-71, gradually increased to 3.86 per cent during 1971-81.

K., 86 per cent in Australia, 76 per cent in Japan, and 74 per cent in U. Thus there is an increasing trend towards huge concentration of population in the bigger towns.

In Class II and Class III towns together, the proportion of urban population remained almost constant at the level of 26 to 28 per cent during the period 1901-81.

With a liberal definition of urban area adopted in 1951, the proportion of urban population suddenly rose to 17.6 per cent.

But with a slightly strict definition, the proportion of urban population recorded a small increase to 18.3 per cent in 1961.Thus the data on rural-urban distribution during the last three censuses are comparable.The proportion of urban population to total population of India as per this new definition was estimated at 20.2 per cent in 1971 census and then marginally rose to 23.7 per cent in 1981.Again, the percentage of households in the higher income category was 3.75 per cent in the urban areas in comparison to that of only 0.56 per cent in the rural areas.The size of total urban population increased from about 26 million in 1901 to 62 million in 1951, showing an increase of 36 million in just 50 years.But in the remaining Class IV, Class V and Class VI towns together, the relative proportion of urban population concentration declined sharply from 47.2 per cent in 1901 to only 13.6 per cent in 1981.Besides continuation of urbanisation process, a number of Class II towns have been transformed into a Class I town and the number of Class I towns has thus increased from 74 in 1951 to 216 in 1981.(b) All other places which satisfy the following criteria: (i) Minimum population of 5,000; (ii) At least 75 per cent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and (iii) A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq km (1,000 persons per sq mile).The definition of an urban unit in 1961 census was also similar to the above mentioned definition.Therefore, urban areas have higher percentage of lower middle income, middle income, upper middle income and higher income group of people than that of rural areas. Thus it is found from Table 6.8 that the percentage of households in the lower middle income category was 34.75 per cent in urban areas as compared to that of 23.88 per cent in the rural areas.Similarly, the percentage of households in the middle income and the upper middle income categories were 17.89 per cent and 6.46 per cent in the urban areas as compared to that of only 7.06 per cent and 1.16 per cent in the rural areas.

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