Bad institutions themselves directly affect modern growth.
Pre-colonial institutions also matter for present-day outcomes.
I look at four broad institutional types (land tenure, slavery, polygyny and states), outline influential theories that explain why they took the shapes they did before colonial rule, and why they matter to Africa today.
The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation.
In this review, I discuss the role of African institutions in general and pre-colonial institutions in particular in explaining present-day African poverty.
Six of the most often cited explanations of African poverty -- geography, ethnolinguistic fractionalization, the slave trades, colonial rule, underdevelopment, and failed aid -- operate largely through institutions.
Colonialism and underdevelopment in East Africa: the politics of economic change, 1919-1939.
Foreign aid, institutions, and governance in Sub- Saharan Africa.
Geography, demography, and economic growth in Africa.
States and markets: The advantage of an early start.